Warning! : The colors below may cause sweating, irritation to the eyes & mouth, the forming of sad, scared, awkward looking facial expressions, and the gratuitous exhibition of machismo. Be careful not to touch your eyes or your ...er...more sensitive areas after handling. Now, the hottest colors in the world.
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The spicy heat of peppers is measured in Scoville Heat Units. This scale measures the amount of Capsaicin the chemical compound that stimulates chemoreceptor nerve endings in the skin, especially the mucous membranes. In other words it makes that stuff hot.
To give us an idea of the Scoville scale, Pure capsaicin (the active component in peppers) is a 15,000,000 - 16,000,000, you don't want to eat or even get near that. If your using pepper as a weapon or deterrent you'll want at least 5,000,000, which is what is used by law enforcement in pepper spray. On the other side of the scale we have bell peppers at 0 units and Tabasco red pepper sauce with a rating between 2,500 & 5,000 units.
We start of with the hottest peppers in the world and work our way down through some of those with less heat but still packed with hot colors.
Scoville: 855,000 - 1,075,000 | This is the hottest chili in the world.
Scoville: 350,000–580,000 | The Red Savina pepper is a cultivar of the habanero chili (Capsicum chinense Jacquin), which has been selectively bred to produce hotter, heavier, and larger fruit.
Scoville: 200,000 - 385,000 | One of hottest of the large-fruited habanero types, and the favorite pepper in the Caribbean to make barbecue sauces and marinades, with a unique rich flavor unduplicated by any other pepper. Can be dried and smoked like the Chipotle, to produce an exquisite flavored sauce.
Scoville: 100,000 - 350,000 | Scotch bonnet, also known as Meh Boabs Bonnet, Scotty Bons or Bonney peppers, (Latin: Capsicum chinense) is a variety of chili pepper that belongs to the same species as the habanero. A cultivar of the habanero, it is one of the hottest peppers in the world. Found mainly in the Caribbeanislands and also in Guyana and the Maldives Islands, it is named for its resemblance to a Tam o'shanter hat.
Scoville: 150,000 - 325,000 | The habanero chili (Capsicum chinense) is one of the more intensely spicy species of chili peppers of the Capsicum genus.
Scoville: 125,00 - 325,000 | The Fatalii is a chili pepper of Capsicum chinense that originates in central and southern Africa. It is described to have a fruity, citrus flavor with a searing heat that is comparable to the standard habanero. The Scoville Food Institute lists the Fatalii as the sixth hottest pepper.
Scoville: 100,00 - 325,000 | Wrinkled pepper, usually 1-2" long, 1" wide. Seeds are from the beautiful peach colored variety, bearing fruits similar to the orange type but with red-toned skin. The fruits also tend to be a bit larger in size.
Scoville: 100,000 - 300,000 | Madame Jeanette (Capsicum chinense) is a chili pepper originally from Suriname. The fruits are shaped like small bell peppers but with Habanero-like heat. The peppers ripen to reddish-yellow but they are larger and more symmetrical than Habaneros. When raw, the taste is of a hot burning, without any sweetness or fruitiness. It may be related to the Suriname Red (as this pepper is also known as 'Suriname Yellow').
Scoville: 100,000 - 300,000 | The Datil is an exceptionally hot pepper. Datils are similar in strength to habaneros but have a sweeter, fruitier flavor. Mature peppers are about 3.5 inches long and yellow-orange in color.
Scoville: 50,000 - 100,000 | The bird's eye chili is small but packs quite a lot of heat. At one time it was even listed as the hottest chili in the Guinness Book of World Records but other hotter varieties of chili have since been identified.
Scoville: 50,000 | This import from Bolivia makes a lovely landscape plant with its purple leaves and lovely 1/2in. fruits which begin purple, then yellow and finally red.
Scoville: 30,000 - 50,000 | Cayenne is used in cooking spicy dishes, as a powder or in its whole form (such as in Sichuan cuisine) or in a thin, vinegar-based sauce.
Scoville: 5,000 - 30,000 | Peppers are hot, grow upright, and turn from purple, to cream, to pale yellow, to orange, to red when mature. Plant has green stems with purple markings, green leaves with purple veins, and purple flowers.
Scoville: 5,000 - 30,000 | The Lemon drop is a hot, citrus-flavored pepper which is a popular seasoning pepper in Peru, where it is known as Kellu Uchu. It is also known in the anglophone world as 'Hot lemon' or 'Lemon Drop'. The bright yellow, crinkled, cone-shaped fruits are about 2-1/2" long and 1/2" wide and mature from green to yellow.
Scoville: 2,500 - 5,000 | A very good chili in taste ... variety native to the Caribbean. A bit weaker than the variety 'Cayenne' Capsicum annuum from.
Scoville: 500 - 2,500 | The poblano is a mild chile pepper originating in the State of Puebla, Mexico. Dried it is called an ancho chile. While poblanos tend to have a mild flavor, occasionally and unpredictably a poblano can have significant heat. Different peppers from the same plant have been reported to vary substantially in heat intensity.
Scoville: 100 - 500 | Peperoncini (or pepperoncini) are a variety of the species Capsicum annuum, like bell peppers and chili peppers. They are also known asTuscan peppers, sweet Italian peppers and golden Greek peppers. While called peperonciniin American English, in Italy these particular kind of peppers are called friggitello (plural friggitelli) or more generally peperone(plural peperoni) like other sweet varieties of peppers, while the termpeperoncini (singular peperoncino) is used for hotter varieties of chili peppers.
Scoville: 0 | Bell pepper or sweet pepper come in different colors, including red, yellow and orange. The fruit is also frequently consumed in its unripe form, when the fruit is still green. Bell peppers are sometimes grouped with less pungent pepper varieties as "sweet peppers". Peppers are native to Mexico, Central America and northern South America. Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread to other European, African and Asian countries.
The color and temperature of a flame are dependent on the type of fuel and amount of soot present in the combustion. A red flame is the coolest part, then as the temperature rises it changes to orange, yellow, and finally to white, being the hottest part. A blue flame will appear if the concentration of oxygen is high enough and creates enough energy to excite and ionize gas molecules in the flame. It can be seen near the base of candles where airborne soot is less concentrated.
Different flame types of a Bunsen burner depend on oxygen supply. On the left a rich fuel with no premixed oxygen produces a yellow sooty diffusion flame; on the right a lean fully oxygen premixed flame produces no soot and the flame color is produced by molecular radicals, especially CH and C2 band emission. The purple color is an artifact of the photographic process.
Flame color depends on several factors, the most important typically being blackbody radiation and spectral band emission, with both spectral line emission and spectral line absorption playing smaller roles. In the most common type of flame, hydrocarbon flames, the most important factor determining color is oxygen supply and the extent of fuel-oxygen "pre-mixture", which determines the rate of combustion and thus the temperature and reaction paths, thereby producing different color hues.
In a laboratory under normal gravity conditions and with a closed oxygen valve, a Bunsen burner burns with yellow flame (also called a safety flame) at around 1,000°C. This is due to incandescence of very fine soot particles that are produced in the flame.
ith increasing oxygen supply, less blackbody-radiating soot is produced due to a more complete combustion and the reaction creates enough energy to excite and ionize gas molecules in the flame, leading to a blue appearance. The spectrum of a premixed (complete combustion) butane flame on the right shows that the blue color arises specifically due to emission of excited molecular radicals in the flame, which emit most of their light well below ~565 nanometers in the blue and green regions of the visible spectrum.
Flame temperatures of common items include a blow torch at 1,300°C, a candle at 1,400°C, or a much hotter oxyacetylene combustion at 3,000°C. Cyanogen produces an ever-hotter flame with a temperature of over 4525°C (8180°F) when it burns in oxygen.
Generally speaking, the coolest part of a diffusion (incomplete combustion) flame will be red, transitioning to orange, yellow, and white the temperature increases as evidenced by changes in the blackbody radiation spectrum. For a given flame's region, the closer to white on this scale, the hotter that section of the flame is. The transitions are often apparent in TV pictures of fires, in which the color emitted closest to the fuel is white, with an orange section above it, and reddish flames the highest of all. Beyond the red the temperature is too low to sustain combustion, and black soot escapes. A blue-colored flame only emerges when the amount of soot decreases and the blue emissions from excited molecular radicals become dominant, though the blue can often be seen near the base of candles where airborne soot is less concentrated.
Smelting is a form of extractive metallurgy; its main use is to produce a metal from its ore. To do it you need some really high temperatures for the final step in the process, reduction.
Reduction is the final, high-temperature step in smelting. It is here that the oxide becomes the elemental metal. A reducing environment, (often provided by carbon monoxide in an air-starved furnace) pulls the final oxygen atoms from the raw metal. The required temperature varies over a very large range, both in absolute terms, and in terms of the melting point of the base metal.
Some of the higher temperature metals include Tungsten (3000 °C , 5432 °F) & Titanium (1795 °C, 3263 °F) where as iron melts at 1530°C (2786 °F).
When first erupted from a volcanic vent, lava is a liquid at temperatures from 700 °C to 1,200 °C (1,300 °F to 2,200 °F).
I'm sure we all know the Sun quite well; its temperature: 5,505 °C (9941 °F) at the surface and ~15,699,727 °C (28,259, 541 °F) at the core.
Header Image by wstryder
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